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Executive Summary Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and are subject to legislative action.Legislative mandates on maximum class size have been very popular at the state level.
We examine “what the research says” about whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for whom, and under what circumstances.
Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action.
This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later.
Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study.
This average is weighted with respect to the number of shares acquired at each price, and not just the absolute price.
Weighted averages show up in many areas of finance besides the purchase price of shares, including portfolio returns, inventory accounting and valuation.
When a fund, which holds multiple securities, is up 10 percent on the year, that 10 percent represents a weighted average of returns for the fund with respect to the value of each position in the fund.
For inventory accounting, the weighted average value of inventory accounts for fluctuations in commodity prices, for example, while LIFO () methods give more importance to time than value.
When evaluating companies to discern whether their shares are correctly priced, investors use the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) to discount a company's cash flows.
WACC is weighted based on the market value of debt and equity in a company's capital structure.