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Someone with enough knowledge of your circumstances and condition would have been able, in principle, to predict what you would choose. We act freely when we are not constrained or coerced. If I hand over my wallet to a robber who is pointing a gun at my head, I am not acting freely.Another way of putting this is to say that we act freely when we act on our desires.Metaphysical libertarianism (not to be confused with the political doctrine of libertarianism) says that determinism is false since when we act freely some part of the process leading up to the action (e.g.
Although both philosophers believed in free will, Sartre’s argument seems more atheistically designed to back the existence of free will above anything else.
According to Sartre, man cannot escape from making choices, and must act within his will to make the necessary choices or risk being perceived in bad faith.
Although James believed in free will purely on ethical grounds, he vehemently argued that neither science nor his own introspections supported the tenets of free will.
In , James argued that in situations where one action appears as coherent as the other, there would be no standard whatsoever to judge one action as necessary than the other (Dubin 1).
The debate of free will and determinism has perplexed philosophers for many years now.
The term ‘free will’ is used in Philosophy to denote a particular sort of capacity given to rational agents to select a course of action from various available alternatives (O’Connor para. Determinism is the philosophical principle claiming that all actions results from foregoing events or natural causes.
The upshot is still that you do not, ultimately, have any control over or responsibility for your actions. Although their positions typically fall within the broad lines described above, they offer sophisticated new versions and defenses.
This line of criticism of soft determinism is sometimes referred to as the “consequence argument.” Many major philosophers including Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, and Voltaire have defended some form of soft determinism. Dennett, for instance, in his book, argues that what we call free will is a highly developed ability, that we have refined in the course of evolution, to envisage future possibilities and to avoid those we don’t like.
This libertarian concept of freedom is unintelligible, they argue, and at odds with the prevailing scientific picture.
What matters to us, they argue, is that we enjoy some degree of control over and responsibility for our actions.