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Twentieth-century Thomist philosopher Étienne Gilson wrote about faith and reason Fides et Ratio is an encyclical promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 14 September 1998.
Some have asserted that Martin Luther taught that faith and reason were antithetical in the sense that questions of faith could not be illuminated by reason.
Contemporary Lutheran scholarship however has found a different reality in Luther.
More recently Hans-Peter Großhans has demonstrated that Luther's work on Biblical Criticism stresses the need for external coherence in right exegetical method.
This means that for Luther it is more important that the Bible be reasonable according to the reality outside of the scriptures than that the Bible make sense to itself, that it has internal coherence.
Rationalists contend that this is arrived at because they have observed the world being consistent and sensible, not because they have faith that it is.
Essay On Faith And Rationality
Beliefs held "by faith" may be seen existing in a number of relationships to rationality: Dei Filius was a dogmatic constitution of the First Vatican Council on the Roman Catholic faith.Although the words faith and belief are sometimes erroneously conflated and used as synonyms, faith properly refers to a particular type (or subset) of belief, as defined above.Broadly speaking, there are two categories of views regarding the relationship between faith and rationality: The Catholic Church also has taught that true faith and correct reason can and must work together, and, viewed properly, can never be in conflict with one another, as both have their origin in God, as stated in the Papal encyclical letter issued by Pope John Paul II, Fides et ratio ("[On] Faith and Reason").Faith and rationality are two ideologies that exist in varying degrees of conflict or compatibility. Faith is belief in inspiration, revelation, or authority.The word faith sometimes refers to a belief that is held with lack of reason or evidence, a belief that is held in spite of or against reason or evidence, or it can refer to belief based upon a degree of evidential warrant.There may be evolutionary causes for irrational beliefs — irrational beliefs may increase our ability to survive and reproduce.Or, according to Pascal's Wager, it may be to our advantage to have faith, because faith may promise infinite rewards, while the rewards of reason are seen by many as finite. Skinner in 1948, pigeons were awarded grain at regular time intervals regardless of their behaviour.But objected that most plants cannot survive being covered by water for that length of time, a boat of that magnitude could not have been built by wood, and there would be no way for two of every animal to survive on that ship and migrate back to their place of origin.(such as penguins), Although Christian apologists offer answers to these and such issues, under the premise that such responses are insufficient, then one must choose between accepting the story on faith and rejecting reason, or rejecting the story by reason and thus rejecting faith.In this view, there are many beliefs that are held by faith alone, that rational thought would force the mind to reject.As an example, many people believe in the Biblical story of Noah's flood: that the entire Earth was covered by water for forty days.