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Accordingly, it is the structural segmentation of responsibilities (independent or collective) that differentiates between these two terms, creating opportunities for managers to apply appropriate solutions to resolve variable and complex organisational problems.Whilst employees may initially begin their organisational tenure as a member of a working group, it is ultimately the priority and high level objective of the leadership to stimulate functional team-working, actualising tangible, high-performing outcomes from a participative environment that are capable of supporting a broader organisational vision and agenda.(203) recognise that there are three dominant role categories including action-oriented, people oriented, and thinking/problem solving-oriented under which eight distinct role behaviours can be grouped: implementer, completer/finisher, shaper, coordinator, team worker, resource investigator, monitor evaluator, and plant.
To some members, meetings become a chore as suggested by Katzenbach and Smith (1993).
During the decision process, there is a threat that not all members are fully participating in the group work or may agree with the rest of the team.
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(204) contest that the behavioural foundations of this theory undermine considerations of skill, intellect, and experience, failing to accurately predict team-specific outcomes.
Alternatively, Prichard and Stanton (194) propose that the role theory framework can be used in a more pro-active, learning-oriented manner in order to assist team members in becoming aware of skills needed for successful team work, identifying capabilities which may be absent from the team at any given time, and implement avoidance strategies to resist behaviour that may not be conducive to successful team-working.A disadvantage of teamwork may be the fact that it is very time consuming and may take members a long time to make decisions, as all viewpoints of team members need to be considered.It may take a while for team members to come to an agreement of what should be done or where to meet and when.Yet in spite of the dynamic characteristics of teams in practice, many organisations fail to recognise the core determinants of a team-oriented framework, instead grouping employees into non-linked, non-dependent, individually-driven models.This group-based approach is distinct from team-specific initiatives and fails to meet the rigorous determinants of dynamism and effectiveness necessary in the modern marketplace.Fincham and Rhodes (2005) imply that sometimes an individual’s personal goals conflict with the group’s goals; and if he or she is not prepared to modify his or her personal goals, dissatisfaction with the group becomes almost inevitable. This ‘deviate’ member may cause problems in the dynamics of the group, such as conflict between group members or lack of participation from others.If there is conflict in the team or if there are not good relations between team members, individuals may be reluctant to share ideas as they may be intimidated or may fear being judged by others in the group.It is the ability for leaders to not only inspire employee engagement in a common goal or agenda, but collaboration within a heterogeneous, multi-functional, interdependent team that ultimately creates the necessary opportunities for maximising efficiency and stimulating higher performance outcomes over time (Hogel and Proserpio, 2060).As team members continue to evolve beyond the pitfalls of group-based membership and individualised working priorities, the characteristics and capabilities of the team itself begin to emerge, providing pathways to new capabilities and programme development as members actively pursue mutual and shared goals and outcomes.A team is a group of people working together to achieve the same objectives.Katzenbach and Smith state in their report The Discipline of Teams (1993) that ‘the essence of a team is common commitment.