Critics dispute many aspects of psychoanalysis including whether or not it is indeed a science; the value of the data upon which Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, based his theories; and the method and effectiveness of psychoanalytic treatment.
There has been much criticism as well as praise regarding psychoanalysis over the years, but a hard look at both the positive and negative feedback of critics of psychoanalysis shows, in my opinion, that psychoanalysis is indeed a "great idea" in personality that should not be overlooked.
The id has the quality of being unconscious and contains everything that is inherited, everything that is present at birth, and the instincts (Freud, 1949, p. The ego has the quality of being conscious and is responsible for controlling the demands of the id and of the instincts, becoming aware of stimuli, and serving as a link between the id and the external world.
In addition, the ego responds to stimulation by either adaptation or flight, regulates activity, and strives to achieve pleasure and avoid unpleasure (Freud, 1949, p. Finally, the superego, whose demands are managed by the id, is responsible for the limitation of satisfactions and represents the influence of others, such as parents, teachers, and role models, as well as the impact of racial, societal, and cultural traditions (Freud, 1949, p. Freud states that the instincts are the ultimate cause of all behavior.
In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) explains the principal tenets on which psychoanalytic theory is based.
He begins with an explanation of the three forces of the psychical apparatus--the id, the ego, and the superego.
Whereas new ideas have enriched the field of psychoanalysis and techniques have adapted and expanded over the years, psychoanalysts today, like Freud, believe that psychoanalysis is the most effective method of obtaining knowledge of the mind.
Through psychoanalysis, patients free themselves from terrible mental anguish and achieve greater understanding of themselves and others.
Errors occurring in the development of the sexual function result in homosexuality and sexual perversions, according to Freud (1949, p. Freud (1949) defines the qualities of the psychical process as being either conscious, preconscious, or unconscious (p. Ideas considered to be conscious are those of which we are aware, yet they remain conscious only briefly.
Preconscious ideas are defined as those that are capable of becoming conscious.