Marx 11th Thesis

Marx 11th Thesis-79
The imperative of changing the world is without a theory of moral justification Assumption A has been addressed by me in the past.

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X The standpoint of the old materialism is "civil" society; the standpoint of the new is human society, or socialised humanity.

XI The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it.

Hence it happened that the active side, in contradistinction to materialism, was developed by idealism-but only abstractly, since, of course, idealism does not know real, sensuous activity as such.

Feuerbach wants sensuous objects, really distinct from the thought objects, but he does not conceive human activity itself as objective activity.

He overlooks the fact that after completing this work, the chief thing still remains to be done.

For the fact that the secular basis detaches itself from itself and establishes itself in the clouds as an independent realm can only be explained by the cleavage and self-contradictions within this secular basis.VII Feuerbach, consequently, does not see that the "religious sentiment" is itself a social product, and that the abstract individual whom he analyses belongs in reality to a particular form of society. All mysteries which mislead theory into mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the comprehension of this practice.IX The highest point attained by contemplative materialism, that is, materialism which does not comprehend sensuousness as practical activity, is the contemplation of single individuals in civil society.The latter must itself, therefore, first be understood in its contradiction and then, by the removal of the contradiction, revolutionised in practice.Thus, for instance, after the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the holy family, the former must then itself be criticised in theory and revolutionised in practice.The dispute over the reality or non-reality of thinking which is isolated from practice is a purely scholastic question.III The materialist doctrine that men are products of circumstances and upbringing, and that, therefore, changed men are products of other circumstances and changed upbringing, forgets that it is men who change circumstances and that it is essential to educate the educator himself.Hence, this doctrine necessarily arrives at dividing society into two parts, one of which is superior to society .The coincidence of the changing of circumstances and of human activity can be conceived and rationally understood only as revolutionising practice.Engels made a few small changes in the "Theses" when he published them in 1888: he added the phrase "in Robert Owen, for example," in parentheses, at the end of the first paragraph of Thesis ' III; italicized "social product" in Thesis VII; italicized "contemplative" and placed quotation marks around "civil society" in Thesis IX, The version presented below is Marx's.I The chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism that of Feuerbach includedis that the thing, reality, sensuousness, is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as human sensuous activity, practice, not subjectively.


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