The peculiar structure of the nucleolus is, however, inconvenient for the cells.
So once the genome is copied for distribution between daughter cells during cell division, unions generated between the chromosomes can interfere with their correct distribution during mitosis.
Experts from the University of Seville and the Andalusian Centre for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Cabimer) have published a new study on the mechanisms that regulate cell division and guarantee the correct distribution of chromosomes.
In particular, they especially highlight the fundamental role that an organelle, the nucleolus, plays in the coordination of these processes.
Many protein defects that possibly cause neurodegenerative problems are also presumably the consequence of a failed intracellular phase separation.
"Thanks to the discovery as to which proteins control phase separation, new strategies can be pursued to prevent mistakes in this process," says Pelkmans.The experts at Cabimer are continuing to work to see how to stop cell proliferation in adverse conditions.This will allow for the identification of new factors that are involved in the appearance of diseases like cancer.Phase separation of molecules also takes place inside cells. Phase separation guarantees distribution of cell components Researchers at the laboratory of Lucas Pelkmans, professor at the Institute of Molecular Life Sciences at the University of Zurich (UZH), have now discovered that a class of enzymes -- which are dual specificity kinases -- actively control this process in cells.When a cell divides, the enzyme DYRK3 promotes the mixing of the phases.The nucleolus stores hijacked proteins that are key to the regulation of the cell cycle.These are only released when it is necessary for them to carry out their function.This guarantees that the cells can correctly build the machinery for separating the chromosomes and dividing the cell content.After division, the enzyme is broken down and the individual phases start to form again.More information: Ana Isabel de los Santos-Velázquez et al, Late r DNA Condensation Ensures Timely Cdc14 Release and Coordination of Mitotic Exit Signaling with Nucleolar Segregation, Current Biology (2017).DOI: 10.1016/20 This document is subject to copyright.