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In order to realize these goals, secondary education schools need to adopt a new paradigm that embeds learning within real world contexts and that involves students in hands-on activities that promote meaningful problem solving and cognitive apprenticeship (Jonassen,1991).The Philippines, classified as a developing country and grouped in the East Asian region, needs to establish a system of mass secondary education: (a) that responsive to the country’s socio economic needs and capabilities; ( b) that can respond effectively to increased and diversified demand by expanding access to secondary education; and (c) that can help students to graduate with knowledge, skills, attitudes and experience needed to exercise their choices beyond secondary education.The 2002 BEC (Basic education Curriculum) is not a sweeping change but a restructuring of the 1983 Elementary Education Curriculum (NESC) and the 1989 New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC).
In the regional context, the education systems in Asia during the last decade were in a state of flux.
However, there has been a general desire to reform the system in order to gain knowledge and skills appropriate to a changing world.
The core subjects are Mathematics, Science and Technology, Indonesian language and Civic education and Geography.
Science is integrated to different streams such as Biology, Physics, Chemistry and Technology and the twenty percent localized has subjects in Agriculture, Fisheries, Woodcraft and Entrepreneurship.
Do not you know how to make a review of related literature? Make use of our guide and you are sure to create a qualitative review of related literature. A review of related literature is an integral part of theses or dissertations. The main purpose of a review of related literature is to analyze scientific works by other researchers that you used for investigation critically.
Massive societal changes over the past twenty years (Drucker,1994; Reigeluth,1994) have altered society’s educational needs and in turn are driving schools to redesign their curricula.Globalization and the era of free market stress the teaching and learning of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in addition to further strengthening the teaching of mathematics, science and foreign language subjects.The axiom has been to be a competitive citizen in a highly competitive world.The use of credit system at this level facilitates flexibility in the teaching-learning area.Vietnam, on the other hand, secondary education comprises of two grades- basic secondary and general secondary education.Hence, secondary education is considered the bridge between primary or basic education, the labor market and tertiary education.From year 1945 onwards, primary and secondary education were given significant investments that advanced economies of Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Taiwan adopted to increase the length , access and improve the quality of basic education that included lower secondary schooling or junior secondary school (Mundle,1998).Basic secondary education is conducted in four school years from sixth to ninth form and the pupil must have a primary education graduate certificate and be eleven years old.General secondary education is conducted in three school years from the tenth to twelfth form and must have a graduate certificate from the basic secondary level and be fifteen years old.The lower level emphasizes learners’ intellect, ethics, morality and basic skills, while the upper level aims to provide appropriate academic and vocational knowledge and skills corresponding with the learners’ interests and aptitudes.Meanwhile, secondary curriculum covers five broad fields: language, science, mathematics, social studies, character development and work education.