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Not surprisingly, a more pronounced FHP, in both sexes, was correlated with an increase in age groups.Moreover, the mean FHP in our sample was recorded as 26 ±mm, a significantly larger value than the mean recorded in 1996 and prior to the “hand held technological revolution”.
In stark contrast to historical documents and our understanding of the anatomy of the EOP and surrounding structures, we have recently reported on the development of prominent exostosis emanating from this enthesis in over 40% of young adults’ skulls (18–30-year-old, n = 218).
To avoid ambiguity, those bony outgrowths were named enlarged EOP (EEOP) only when they have exceeded 10 mm in size (Fig.
Repetitive and sustained mechanical load is required for robust adaptation to take place in tendon properties, as connective tissue adaptive response to load necessitates a slow process of matrix protein (collagen) production, and the associated poor posture.
Musculoskeletal disorders related to poor posture while using computers and tablets have been investigated extensively and were identified as a risk factor for the development of related symptoms at the neck, shoulders and forearms.
Robust and pronounced cranial features such as cranial thickness, supraorbital torus, a sagittal keel and occipital torus are the hallmarks of early hominin skulls, characteristics that are discussed extensively in the anthropological literature in association with early hominin evolution.
With evolutionary changes, such as perfection of bipedalism, cranial balance and equilibrium, and a reduction in the need for powerful mastication has resulted in reduced stress exerted on the skull by muscle tendons and ligaments.
These images also include the enthesophyte measurements used throughout this study.
Sample radiographic assessment of forward head protraction (FHP).